Which sample rate avoids the artifacts?
In the best case possible, we would want to accurately reproduce every frequency between 20 Hz and 20 kHz. This is however just not feasible with current technology at a reasonable price point. That means we’ll have to do with what we already have: 96 kHz and 192 kHz. Let’s look at both of them.
In the graphs for 96 kHz we can clearly see an improvement compared to 48 kHz, as it almost eliminates all the artifacts for these frequencies. At 96 kHz we are safe when it comes to human speech and most instruments. Some artifacts are still left, but for the most common use cases, 96 kHz is enough.
At 192 kHz we can see all the remaining artifacts effectively disappear completely. Even 19.2 kHz looks like a proper wave and likely will not need any complex filtering to be detected correctly. This would be the ideal sample rate for instruments such as cymbals and bells, but would be massively overkill for vocals.